Saturday, September 29, 2012

Neonate Timber Rattlesnakes

As many of you know I've been working with Dr. Mark Mills of MWSU on a rattlesnake survey on one of the farms my husbands family owns. We've been P.I.T. tagging rattlesnakes for 2 seasons. Nearly two weeks ago my brother-in-law found a neonate (newborn) rattlesnake hiding under a piece of tin. He did not capture it thinking we weren't interested in tagging the babies. Little did he know it was the babies we are the most interested in tagging. I made a quick trip to the farm, and by the time I got there it was nearly dark. I prayed the snake would still be where he had found it, but had doubts as three hours had already passed. I grabbed a flashlight, my bag and my snake tongs. I flipped over the piece of tin and voila! The snake WAS still there. Such a beautiful little snake. I called Dr. Mills and told him what I had, and he was as excited as I was at the opportunity to tag a newborn.
We agreed to meet at 10:00 AM the next day and process the snake.

(Mark measuring the neonate)
(Safely contained in a snake tube)

This snake measured 15.5 inches in length, weighed 1.36 ounces and is a female. She has one little button and rattle which tells us she has shed once. The average size of newborn timber rattlesnakes is 9 to 13 inches. So this snake is considerably larger than that. Our hypothesis is that this snake was born earlier than is typical for this species. Perhaps sometime the end of July or first of August. We know it is a neonate as the umbilical scar is still visible.

(Umbilical scar)

We released this little darling back to the piece of tin where she was found after P.I.T. tagging her. We took some time and searched the area for additional litter mates to this snake. We did not locate a single other snake of any kind.

Ten days later I was at the farm looking for snakes and found another neonate under the exact same piece of tin. I suspected it was probably the same snake we tagged previously, but decided to capture it anyway. I took it into work with me and called Dr. Mills. He met me at the office and we went to one of MWSU biology labs. He ran his scanner over the snake and it had no tag in it!!!! This was a new snake!!! We were so excited to have another neonate and most likely a litter mate to the one from 10 days ago. We measured her at 16.1 inches and she weighed 1.94 ounces. Again it is a female. We P.I.T. tagged her and I ran back to the farm and released her back to hiding spot. This is such an awesome opportunity for us to be able to tag not one, but two neonates. The data that we can potentially get from these snakes is invaluable. I can hardly wait to see how they do on their own.

Friday, September 21, 2012

Snakes! Why did it have to be Snakes?

This famous line from the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark, reflects the sentiment of many folks in response to the mention of snakes. In an earlier Project Noah blog post this week by Neil Dazet, we learned that almost 51% of American people have a fear of snakes. I cannot even begin to tell you how many times I have heard, ‘the only good snake is a dead snake.” But did you know that snakes are such a valuable part of our environment we would be hard pressed to live without them? In fact there are many people who now owe their life to a snake!
What is venom? The American Heritage Dictionary of Science defines venom as, “a poisonous substance secreted by special glands of some snakes, spiders, scorpions, lizards, and similar animals, who inject it into their prey or enemy by biting or stinging.” In the scientific world, venom is injected, while poison is ingested. Therefore spiders and snakes are considered venomous rather than poisonous. Because of the many components of venom and the unique properties of each specific to the many different venomous species, researchers are studying the natural pharmacy of potential medicines that may be used in the near future to treat and even cure diseases.

For instance, if you or a loved one have ever suffered a heart attack and have been treated with either of the drugs Eptifibatide or Tirofiban, then you owe many thanks to snakes. Eptifibatide is a drug that was developed from the venom of rattlesnakes and tirofiban was developed from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper. Venom is a complex mixture of proteins and varies upon its makeup from different snake species. Those same proteins that make venom a deadly cocktail when injected by a snake, can be used by doctors in modified amounts to treat human disease. The two drugs mentioned above are used to halt heart attacks when given within the first three hours of symptoms.
Ancrod was developed from the venom of the Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) pictured left, and has been used to help prevent deadly stroke-causing clots during difficult surgeries.
Contortrostatin, a protein found in the venom of the Southern copperhead (Askistrodon contortrix) below left, is showing much promise in treating breast cancer, and the venom of the African black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) on the right is being studied for the treatment of Alzheimer’s.

But snakes are important to us in other ways too. Do you like to eat? Of course you do, but what do snakes have to do with food? Snakes are the best form of rodent control and have the unique ability to go where the rodents can go. None of the traps mankind has invented, the cats we have spread around the world or even the birds of prey, can get to the rodents like snakes, or equal the number of rodents consumed by snakes. Even if you don’t like to eat your veggies, the meat animals you consume rely on the vegetation/grain produced on farms. Without snakes to control the rodent population, vegetation/grain production can greatly be impacted. Crop loss and ruination of stored grain by rodents and their feces and urine can range upwards to 100% on some farms during periods of rodent population explosions. Grow your own vegetables and fruits? Many of our smaller snakes feed on slugs, snails and other garden pests and they are non-toxic and do not cause cancer!
Did you know that snakes could help protect your home from fire? It is estimated that about 20% of all house fires in the U.S. of unknown origin can be attributed to damage caused by rodents chewing on wiring and other electrical components.
Because of their constant need to gnaw to keep their teeth in check, rodents may also cause structural and other damage to your home or property. And let’s face it, if a poison is toxic enough to kill a small mammal; is that really something you want to ever have near your children and family pets?
What about disease? Hanta virus occurs naturally throughout most of North and South America; it is airborne, and in the absence of prompt medical attention, its infections are usually fatal. The main hosts for the hanta virus are rodents. Rodents carry many other diseases that can be transmitted to humans (zoonoses), among them: Rabies (Lyssavirus), Plague (Yersinia pestis), Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Leptospirosis (Weil’s syndrome), Salmonellosis, Tuberculosis and many of the tick-bourn diseases like Lyme’s Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.
Do you like to hunt or fish? Snakes affect the quality and numbers of game animals available. They help to prevent diseases in these animals and promote stronger stock by weeding out weak, diseased or old members. They can also affect the food available for game animals to eat. Large timber rattlesnakes show a food preference for squirrels. In preparation for winter, squirrels collect and bury nuts, seeds and acorns in underground stashes. Other animals like deer and turkey are then deprived of these foods except for the occasional accidental uncovering of a poorly buried shallow stash.
Nature is a system of checks and balances. If you remove one component from an ecosystem, the balance shifts in favor of another. And while humans like to think we have control over life; when we tinker with these systems we start a cascade of events the consequences of which we may not even realize for months, years, decades or even generations. In the United States, it is easy to learn the venomous snakes from the nonvenomous and how to take measures to reduce or even prevent human-snake encounters. There is NEVER a good reason to kill a snake in any of our protected parks and natural habitats….or to harm those we encounter in our yards or homes unless they are presenting an immanent threat. If the snake is outside and you keep your yard free of debris and well-maintained, the snake has no reason to stay and will have moved on in an hour or so. If the snake is indoors and you know it is a harmless species, you may use a broom and dust pan to gently urge the snake into a trash can or other lidded container, place the lid on the container and then safely carry the snake to the outdoors and release it. If it is a venomous snake in your house, remove pets and people, try to secure the room the snake is in and call a professional. Do not try to capture or kill the snake…this is how bites occur and can sometimes prove a deadly mistake.
Remember, snakes do a valuable service in the environment and the costs of killing them far outweigh the costs of protecting them and the benefits living with them provide in the long run. So in answer to the question posed in title of this blog, I know why it has to be snakes and I feel very fortunate to share my world with them.
From left: As its name suggests, the gray ratsnake (Pantherophis spiloides) preys on rats, other rodents and the occasional bird and/or eggs; if you are fortunate enough to find a Dekay’s brownsnake (Storeria dekayi) in your yard, you won’t be as troubled by slugs, snails and other pests eating your veggies and decorative plants!; like most snakes, the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is a shy species that rarely strikes unless confronted or disturbed and its venom and has been used to develop life-saving drugs for heart patients; who knows what other cures and treatments may be teased from this majestic beauty?
Author: Lisa Powers, herpetologist and Project Noah Ranger researched and wrote the blog post you just read for the Center of Snake Conservation/Project Noah Snake Week.
Thank you Lisa for allowing us to share this awesome, and informative article with our readers here.
To learn more about the Center for Snake Conservation please visit the following link CSC. Become a member and support the continued conservation of snakes. 
Project Noah has created an awesome database for sharing photographs and information of organisms found throughout the World. This database will provide a valuable resource to educators, naturalist, biologists, ecologists, herpetologists, etc. for wildlife education and awareness. If you are interested, login to their page and begin posting your photos.